Vitamin D Levels among Hospitalized and Non-Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital Padang


  •   Harika Putra

  •   Efrida

  •   Rismawati Yaswir


Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes immune system dysregulation and an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response. Vitamin D acts as an immunomodulator that enhances the immunity defense. Low levels of vitamin D affect the severity of COVID-19 infection. This study aims to determine vitamin D levels in hospitalized and non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients. A case-control study was conducted involving 62 COVID-19 patients, equally divided into hospitalized and non-hospitalized groups at RSUP dr. M. Djamil, Padang from February to September 2020. Serum vitamin D levels were measured using the Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a level less than 20 ng/mL. The hospitalized group consisted of moderate to critical COVID-19 patients, whereas the non-hospitalized group consisted of the asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients according to the Indonesian Ministry of Health Guidelines. All data were analyzed using a T-test and Chi-square with a significant p-value of 0.05. The results showed that most subjects were women between 21–60 years. The mean level of vitamin D (ng/mL) in the hospitalized group was lower than in the non-hospitalized group (15.5 ± 7.72 vs. 19.2 ± 14.30; 95% CI -9.509–2.167; p=0.213). Vitamin D deficiency affected hospitalized group more than the non-hospitalized group, but not statistically significant (71% vs. 64.5%, p=0.566). It indicated the role of vitamin D in preventing immune system hyperactivation causing COVID-19 cytokine storm. This study concluded no difference in vitamin D levels among the study groups. Nevertheless, further research on vitamin D is needed to determine its role and benefits against COVID-19 infection.

Keywords: COVID-19, cytokine storm, inflammation, vitamin D deficiency


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