Practical Review of Diagnosis and Management of Cutaneous Tuberculosis in Indonesia

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Tiffany Roelan

Abstract


Tuberculosis is a life-threatening infectious disease that remains a high incidence worldwide. The classification of tuberculosis can be divided into two forms, i.e., pulmonary and extrapulmonary.  The pathogenesis of tuberculosis depends on the cell-mediated immunity of the host. One of the variants of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is cutaneous tuberculosis, that commonly found in Indonesia. Based on the bacterial load, cutaneous tuberculosis is divided into two types, multibacillary and paucibacillary tuberculosis. Diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis often requires specific investigations, such as histopathology, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Interferon-Gamma Release Assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serology, and Polymerase Chain Reaction. The treatment principle for cutaneous tuberculosis is the same as the treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis, which consists of an intensive and maintenance phase.



Keywords: Cutaneous tuberculosis, mycobacterium tuberculosis, skin, infection, extrapulmonary

References

A. Zumla, M. Raviglione, R. Hafner, C. F. von Reyn, “Tuberculosis,” NEJM, vol. 368, no. 8, pp. 745-755, 2013.

D. Resnawita, M. Rays, H. Iskandar, et al., “Laporan tiga kasus tuberculosis ekstra paru,” Indonesia Journal Chest & Critical Care Medical, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 23-29, 2018.

J. Nurman, D. B. Setyanto DB, “Skrofuloderma pada anak: penyakit yang terlupakan?,” Sari Pediatri, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 108-115, 2010.

N. Noviarisa, F. F. Yani, D. Basir, “Tren kasus tuberculosis anak di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang tahun 2014-2016,” Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas, vol.8, no. 1, pp. 36-41, 2019.

A. Djuanda, “Tuberkulosis Kutis” in Ilmu Kesehatan Kulit dan Kelamin, A. Djuanda, M. Hamzah, S. Aisah, editors, 5th Ed. Jakarta: Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia, pp. 64-72, 2007.

N. Mohanty, B. B. Nayak, “Cutaneous tuberculosis,” Med. J. DY Patil Univ., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 53-55, 2014.

M. Mathur, S. N. Pander, “Clinicohistopatological profile of cutaneous tuberculosis in Central Nepal,” Kathmandu Univ. Med. J., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 238-241, 2014.

M. Erawati, M. Andriany, “The prevalence and demographic risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among healthcare workers in Semarang, Indonesia,” Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, vol. 13, pp. 197-206, 2020.

D. Sharma, D. Sarkar, “Pathophysiology of tuberculosis: an update review,” PharmaTutor, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 15-21, 2018.

J. B. Santos, M. H. Oliveira, A. R. Figueiredo, et al., “Cutaneous tuberculosis: epidemiologic, etiopathogenic and clinical aspects,” An. Bras. Dermatol., vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 219-228, 2014.

P. J. Cardona, “Pathogenesis of tuberculosis and other mycobacteriosis,” Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 38-46, 2018.

S. C. K. Ho, “Cutaneous tuberculosis: clinical features, diagnosis and management,” H.K. Dermatol. Venereol. Bull., vol. 11, pp. 130-138, 2003.

K. Sakamoto, “The pathology of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 423-439, 2012.

C. Aliagaoglu, M. Atasoy, A. I. et al., “Tuberculosis verrucose cutis,” Eur. J. Gen. Med., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 268-273, 2009.

D. Manjumeena, S. Sundaramoorthy, “Tuberculosis verrucose cutis masquerading as chromoblastomycosis – a case report,” Our Dermatol. Online, pp. 275-278, 2018.

M. K. Hill, C. V. Sanders, “Cutaneous tuberculosis,” ASM Science, pp. 1-7, 2017.

A. Singal, S. Sonthalia, “Cutaneous tuberculosis,” The Skin Clinic & Research Centre, India, pp. 267-97, 2015.

P. R. V. Karna, M. M. Rusyati, “Papulonecrotic tuberculoid: a case report,” IJBS., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 4-8, 2020.

L. Borretta, P. Green, “An atypical presentation of lupus vulgaris,” CMAJ, vol. 189, no. 12, pp. 469, 2017.

M. R. Lapausa, A. M. Saldana, A. N. Asensio, “Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: an overview,” Rev. Esp. Sanid. Penit., vol. 17, pp. 3-11, 2015.

A. Raj, N. Singh, K. B. Gupta, et al., “Comparative evaluation of several gene targets for designing a multiplex-PCR for an early diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis,” Yonsei Med. J., vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 88-96, Jan 2016.

P. Khadka, S. Koirala, J. Thapaliya, “Cutaneous tuberculosis: clinicopathologic arrays and diagnostic challenges,” Dermatology Research and Practice, no. 7201973, pp.1-9, 2018.

A. Sultana, M. S. I. Bhuiyan, A. Haque et al., “Pattern of cutaneous tuberculosis among children and adolescent,” Bangladesh Med. Res. Counc. Bull., vol. 38, pp. 94-97, 2012.

B. M. Yasaratne, D. M. Madegedara, “Tuberculosis of the skin,” Journal of the Ceylon College of Physicians, vol. 41, pp. 83-88, 2010.

R. Semaan, R. Traboulsi, S. Kanj, “Primary mycobacterium tuberculosis complex cutaneous infection: report of two cases and literature review,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, pp. 472-477, 2008.

A. Hehanussa, T. Lawalata, A. Kartini, et al., “Diagnosis skrofuloderma dan tubekrulosis kutis verukosa pada seorang pasien,” Berkala Ilmu Kesehatan Kulit & Kelamin, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 221-226, 2010.

M. F. Dias, M. V. Quaresma, D. R. Azulay, et al., “Update on cutaneous tuberculosis,” An. Bras. Dermatol., vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 925-938, 2014.

Y. Mei, W. Zhang, Y. Shi, et al., “Cutaneous tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections at a National Specialized Hospital in China,” Acta. Derm. Venereol., vol. 99, pp. 997-1003, 2019.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Roelan, T. (2021). Practical Review of Diagnosis and Management of Cutaneous Tuberculosis in Indonesia. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 3(5), 25–30. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.5.1042